Dr. Reine De Ciel, MBA, PhD.
1 October 2018
1. ABSTRACT 3
2. INTRODUCTION 4
3. METHOD 4
4. RESULTS 6
5. DISCUSSION 8
6. CONCLUSION .11
7. REFERENCE .12
8. APPENDICES .13
Figure1: People’s Attitude to Hernandez Bisexuality……………………………………………………6
Figure2: Readers correlate bisexuality with Murders…………………………………………….6
Figure3: Readers Opinion of Hernandez Sex Activities and Sports
Figure4: Media Coverage Quantification
The purpose of this non-human contact research is to review social media and media coverage of Aaron Hernandez as a Bisexual American Professional Athlete and discuss key opportunities in the development of leadership in the management of bisexuality in the American Corporate structure. The method of review is textual analysis for patterns of information dissemination, as well as patterns of responses to information dissemination via mainstream articles in Major authenticated accepted news sources. The findings will be presented to discuss prevalence of types of representation and the resultant dialogue. The issue of missed opportunities for education about Bisexuality in the American LGBT empowerment movement. The acceptance of Emasculation of Alpha Male bisexual men who do not fit the normative “sissy” and the resulting consequences of polarization, and stymied advancement in the empowerment of Bisexual LGBT community members.
The issue of stereotypes for minority males, and athletes are constantly contested in general. The stigma of being a jock is pervasive in the United States. Perception of individuals with athletic prowess as being moronic is battled constantly by athletes who desire to be viewed as individuals with normal intellectual capacities and multiple intelligences. Minority athletes suffer from additional perceived deficits and stereotypes. Carvalo, (2014) chronicles decades of content analysis of reporting and coverage of minority athletes includes a strong discussion of physical athleticism over leadership and professionalism Content analysis on the language of sports as it to racial diversity paints a disparaging picture for the players representing 76% Black (NBA) and 68 % Black (NFL). Divergence in the use of adjectives denoting professionalism, leadership, intellectual and business competence are lacking according to these analyses. Brutus (2016) and Lee (2016) both suggests that multiracial and Asian athletes are not spared the stereotype threat. The issue in the case of Mr. Hernandez whose experience serves as a fitting research topic.
This general communications ecosystem provides the macrocosmic background for the focus of this study. Creating the context for the hyper-masculinized environment in which training, work, general comradery occurs in the current situation which elicits this study can be more clearly comprehended. Hypermasculinity is represented by the attitudes and preference of excessive practice of activities that are considered to belong to biological or gender identified males. Examples of this in the NFL are acts of bravery, physical strength. Social acts that demonstrate membership in the male pact including bonding in strip clubs and other activities in which the players enjoy the perception and acceptance of their dominance by subordinate group members who acquiesce to this notion.
It is critical to note that this practice in the NFL incorporated is unique because of its product, production and producer dynamic which is predicated upon the ability to be physically dominant. In this structure there is an intrinsically engineered Darwinian Alpha male productivity principle, as well as, acculturalization in the NFL that differs with the NBA. The notion of removing this element from the structure is as practically plausible as removing airplanes from air travel or trains from train transport. Men are the product and producers of entertainment outcome. The inherent notion of the sport is male. Consequently, the overall cultural orientation has evolved to include a dominate male sexual orientation based on a generalization of this masculine norm. Sexual orientation is unwittingly etched into the values of the corporate culture as a defacto byproduct of operations. The negative effects of this is factor and other traditional values within the NFL are being evaluated.
As social responsibility, wellness, equality emerge as eminent issues which are forcing the organization to evolve into one that at least conforms to the uniform standards and practices of universal corporate human resources the discussion is growing more intense . As lawsuits emerge challenging the traditions of negligence in the aforementioned areas because of CTE, Work Environment, Player Conduct, Rights and Responsibilities the league will need legitimate information to use for the creation of new policies that will preserve and protect the integrity and legacy of the game while propelling it into a respectable future.
There are players who represent the problems faced by the league. Colin Kaepernick is a case study in the opportunities for racial equality and player responsibilities and rights. The case of Aaron Hernandez may prove to be the most complex because in it all of the current issues of race, responsibility, CTE wellness, and sexual orientation will converge on the mainstream media stage via the continued coverage of the litigation involved in the case. With the league citing fan participation and opinion in many of its most controversial decisions it is only fair to take a look at one of the pressing issues it has chosen to publicly ignore. Just as Frisby conducted a meta-analysis and measured the temperature and growth of the league on the issue of race, this study attempts to do the same against the findings of (Pitt,2006) concerning black and Latino male sexual orientation 12 years since its publication.
The tendency towards generalization and tradition as the basis for establishing corporate norms is challenged in the knowledge worker society that is the NFL today. Taking a look at the reality of sexual orientation under the circumstances related to Aaron Hernandez is as valid and potentially beneficial to the league as the look at his severe CTE. Sexual Orientation is defined clinically as:
“An enduring emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction that one feels toward men, toward women or toward both. Although sexual orientation ranges along a continuum, it is generally discussed in terms of heterosexual-attraction to the other sex– homosexual– attraction to the same sex and bisexual-attraction to both sexes. Sexual orientation has not been conclusively found to be determined by any particular factor or factors, and the timing of the emergence, recognition and expression of one’s sexual orientation varies among individuals… Sexual orientation is not synonymous with sexual activity. (APA)”
As a controversial member of the NFL, amongst his criminal psychopathy has been perceived to be related to issues related to his struggles with discrimination against his sexual orientation which according to his family was bisexual. Aaron identified as one who was attracted to both men and women (Hernandez, 2018). Aaron a Latino male entrenched in both Latino and African American culture presents a case for review of the experience of the prevalent attitudes and practices of communicating information regarding this sexual orientation within the NFL by mainstream media, social media and specialized commination experts. The clinical definition of bisexual is applied here in this situation:
Bisexuality is “Romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior towards both males and females.
For the purpose of this analysis a strict review which will allow definitive understanding of the media response when compared, contrasted against the distinct heterosexual, homosexual sexual orientation coverage. The findings will be discussed appropriately against the current literature on minority male bisexuality.
The validity of the application of media content analysis to gauge the temperature of the public as it relates to the revelation of the bisexuality of Aaron Hernandez is appropriate for use in a commentary on potential best practices for HR based on transformational leadership development. Webster provides the primary research contributor to the full range leadership continuum touted the value of media content analysis to understand current cultural climate long before the emergence of social media as a sophisticated public opinion platform.
The method of media content analysis will provide a view of the interplay between media an public concerning the revelation of Aaron Hernandez’s sexual orientation. The analysis will reveal the nature of presented to the public by the media. Moreover the tone and temperament of the public in response to this can be reviewed with special attention to indicators of bias, and discrimination that.
The process of measurement will be the quantification of results of relevant articles extracted from Boolean search on Bing and Baidu search engines. Review of the credibility of he sources will also be conducted. Though not necessary as this is a dual-purpose student with the intention of analyzing media and public response. Consequently, information in blogs and informal sites is of relevance here as well.
There is a risk of skew in the data because of the limitation of search engines accessible to the researcher who is working from behind the firewall in The People’s Republic of China, Bing and Baidu are the only sanctioned search engines here. These search engines are permitted to operated here because of the perception of their integrity as information systems providers. This may actually be of benefit in the study in that it will provide information that is not skewed by the pay per click schemata of Google which is not permitted in The PRC.
Figure 1. Sexual Orientation Search Engine Results 170 Internet Articles Boolean Search Keyword Aaron Hernandez (9/25/2018 Bing).
The study was conducted and designed using the parameters set out by Philips (). The findings show that an individual in the general population searcher for information on Hernandez will encounter information concerning his sexual orientation 16 percent of the time. With the average search engine producing 25 results per page per Boolean search there will be at least 1 article with header concerning his sexual orientation. Note that the applicable pages also normally contained additional links to articles. The number of additional resources per page were not analyzed for this particular project but can be reviewed in a future research project.
What is important for the interest of this journal is that results overwhelmingly list Hernandez as “Gay” or “Homosexual” the use of the term Bisexual was almost nonexistent. Moreover, as we discuss the within the group results (results of the contents found in the articles deemed relevant) we will touch on the possible relevance of this.
Figure 2. Classification of Sources Content Search Engine Results 170 Internet Articles Boolean Search Keyword Aaron Hernandez (9/25/2018 Bing).
The results of the origin of the content are where the real new episteme is contained. The McPhee article provided half of the original sourcing of the information. This article contained all of the epithets and slurs lobbied against Mr. Hernandez. The discussion will center on Newsweek’s Centrist, Progressive Liberal classification and audience. Additionally, the information used to politically correct the slurring provided by McPhee and how it relates to Mr. Hernandez’s citizenship within the Sporting Industrial Complex. Likewise, Mr. Hernandez attorney George Leontire a self-professed homosexual provided the other source of the gay label. Law Enforcement was not indicated as a primary source of information. They are a strong tertiary source where McPhee’s original article is directly linked.
Figure 3 . Demographics of Article Sources Search Engine Results 170 Internet Articles Boolean Search Keyword Aaron Hernandez (9/25/2018 Bing).
As to be expected the Gay and Sporting communities actively participated in the dissemination of information on Mr. Hernandez. After cleaning data from 368 original hits to uncover 170 articles there were no Latino articles. There were more hits from the African American community than any other community in the area of unofficial blogs. That data was not applicable here. What significance does the silent Latino community have here?
Figure 4. Sexual Orientation Terminology Content Search Engine Results 170 Internet Articles Boolean Search Keyword Aaron Hernandez (9/25/2018 Bing).
The within group results are significant in that 58% of the articles used terminology and labels for Mr. Hernandez that were not correct. A discussion of this finding against the hypothesis expounded by Philps will be written. For Mr. Hernandez the use of the term “Gay” from the original source was not a means of support and respect. As we will see the reliance on the McPhee Newsweek Article as primary data resulted in a saturation of negative terminology.
Figure 5. Political Orientation Results Content Results 170 Internet Articles Boolean Search Keyword Aaron Hernandez (9/25/2018 Bing).
Liberal sources served as the predominant contributors of information on Mr. Hernandez’s sexuality. They provided links to Newsweek which is consistent. The conservative sources also wrote on the subject. Fox Sports and Brietbart were the only two that were found in the Boolean search. The irony is that Fox used the correct terminology of Bisexual. Brietbart canceled itself out using both terms simultaneously. Conservative sports reporting was not the organizations responsible for the use of epithets. Liberal’s provided the public with incorrect labeling and access to defamatory information as a means of determining credibility of the information. The results of the publics response will be outlined as in a qualitative dialogue. The results of public dialogue in the conservative sports outlets was also surprising. There was a mixed use of terms which were related to emasculating Mr. Hernandez in the blogs. Conservative bloggers were more restrained.
Figure 6. Content Impact Results Media Attitude Towards Sexual Orientation Factored. Boolean Search Keyword Aaron Hernandez (9/25/2018 Bing)
The reporters were predominately neutral in their reporting on Mr. Hernandez sexuality. There was more sympathy for Mr. Hernandez plight upon the revelation of his sexual orientation in the media. This was in direct contrast to what McPhee intended with her article. Especially within the sports community which were found to be gappling with the issues relationship with the crimes Mr. Hernandez was alleged to have committed.
Figure 7. Correlation with Criminal Act Content Results 170 Internet Articles Boolean Search Keyword Aaron Hernandez (9/25/2018 Bing).
The media overwhelmingly shyed away from the discussion that there was a correlation between the allegations and Mr. Hernandez’s sexuality. 39% of the articles stated they felt that as a motive for the crime it was viable. As listed above they were sympathetic to Mr. Hernandez using terms like “extortion”, “bribery”, “black male” to describe the situation. As stated above the conservative outlets were not inclined to correlate the crime with anything other than “bad character”. The question emerging from this is what it says concerning the notion of a conspiracy to remove the violent stigma from the LGBT community.
Figure 8. Textual Analysis of 170 Blogs 170 Internet Articles Boolean Search Keyword Aaron Hernandez Bisexual (9/6/2018 Bing).
In keeping with the desire to avoid the stereotypes and harsh words that the LGBT community has worked diligently to avoid. As a member of the LGBT community, a disclaimer is provided here for the following qualitative representation. The chart can be removed from publication should that alternative be chosen. The information contained in it is useful in terms of exploring how much progress has been made in the decade since Dr. Philips penned his primary work on the subject of media content and public perception of minority men. To ensure that it did achieved its goal. The results were taken from 170 relative article hits from a Boolean search with “Aaron Hernandez Bisexual” as the keyword. The publics parroting of the McPhee terminology was unsettling. Actual quotation of the terms she provided in the blogs was pervasive. The sporting blog community made fun of his sexuality discussing his position on the field. Mr. Hernandez was emasculated by the terms related to his playing role on the sports field. Inconsistent with the Philips findings years ago there was no overwhelming negative yatter in the minority community blogs. There was a great deal of focus on Mr. Hernandez’s proclivity as it pertained to sexual gratification as a “Top” or ‘Bottom” as well as the legitimacy of his relationship with Shayana Hernandez. This relationship was treated with neutrality when the blogger was alleged to be of African American descent. In the gay community the discussion was on if she was a cover for his homosexuality or if he was legitimately gay with her acting as a “beard”. It was generally felt that the truth concerning his proclivities can only come from his family and male lovers who would know these answers where Ms. Jenkins Hernandez has presented herself as “being in the dark”. The negative discussions concerning this was presented by Latino bloggers in Gay oriented blogs who followed suit with Philips findings even using the epithet for gay men where discussing Hernandez as an alleged “Bottom”. There was outlier information in discussion of Shayanna Hernandez choice to remain with Mr. Hernandez and a support for what was a theme of “sacrifice” for her partner. The issue is what does this mean for the industries and individuals who are responsible for providing the public with information?
There were no assumptions given in this research which is primarily exploratory. The purpose as stated in the introduction was to compare and contrast the data extracted under the Boolean searches against the most relevant major literature concerning minority male bisexuality. Furthermore, synthesizing the findings with the context of American Sports Human Resources Management via the NFL is necessary to adequately apply the findings to the area of academic expertise of the principle researcher. A discussion of the results as examined in this manner and includes with suggestions for additional research for the resultant questions, problems or solutions that may be uncovered during the examination.
The unique finding was that Newsweek a liberal media resources was responsible for sourcing 58% of the information pertaining to Mr. Hernandez sexual orientation and the main stream media and general publics terminology used to discuss Mr. Hernandez. The NFL and Latino communities where absent as contributors to the dialogue. The article served as a primary source of information regarding law enforcements position, evidence, and descriptions of Mr. Hernandez’s sexual orientation as a closeted gay man in starch contrast to being bisexual. The conservative sporting community was responsible for the sole correct and neutral outlet of information though they too held the party line in terms of being unwilling to accept the notion of passionate protection of privacy. Law enforcement and members of the American Bar Association where not found to be using the correct terminology for Mr. Hernandez who was as a father to a child bisexual. The results of this were consistent with Phillips () study which discussed the fact that liberal African American and minority media outlets fuel a negative image and dialogue about minority bisexual men. Individuals who relied on the most popular forms of media where given information that was sourced by the original gay themed emasculating work that contained the most prejudicial, bias and discriminatory terminology.
As the original source of the information under pressure McPhee apologized confessing her intention to smear Hernandez, as well, as her belief in her ability to do so by using the incorrect terminology along with the emasculating epithets. The overall impact with News outlets and the public was only successful in the area of parroting. There was professional restraint by the media. The sports media surprisingly acted responsibly though they did not consistently apply the correct verbiage. The impact was not effective. The work did supply the public with a motive which they used mostly sympathetically. It is unknown if the prosecution employed pretrial research. The decision not to include the information worked. Were the jury made of individuals in the blogging community there would have been empathy for Mr. Hernandez if not impeachment for the victim. They ultimate finding was that the post Michael Sam NFL is contemptuous of the league, players union for not handling the issue of sexual orientation responsibly.
The media created various strategies for reporting in its attempts to remain politically correct. The use of hyperlinks to the original source in leu of reprinting the negative sources. Moreover, the use of both terms bisexual and gay to balance the scorecard. A few outlets used the situation as an opportunity to educate the public about sexual orientation. The ability of reporters within the Sports Industrial Complex should serve notice to the NFL and Players league that time has come to develop the ability to participate in the dialogue.
Masculinity was predominately weighed by the minority blogging community. Since the inception of Down Low Mountain things have changed. The African American community is interested in joining in the conversation of sexual orientation in terms of physical gratification beyond the layers of gender. The issue of bisexuality is still suspect however. There is a desire to legitimize Mr. Hernandez as a bisexual man. The perception that the reports of his being a closeted gay man involved with a female only for political and economic purposes where bandied about prepensely. The sporting blogging community was inclined to oblige McPhee in repeating slurs. They
also accepted the motive for alleged crimes with sympathy for Mr. Hernandez.
The practice of avoidance has been keenly applied here in this case by both the Players Union and the NFL. The literature on Mr. Hernandez includes active dialogue about a hostile work environment that he himself created with is behavior as an affiliate of less than desirable individuals. The open discussion about players teasing him about having found bodies in response to the allegations of his gang affiliation are as alarming as the storyline of Iiving Meyer and Bill Belicheck’s handling of the star athlete. Meyer’s paring of Hernandez with the Pouncey Twins and Tim Tebow for mentoring and behavior modification is indicative of human resource deficits within the NFL and NCAA. Belichecks behavior has been impeached by Jose Baez who raises questions about the leagues ability to deal with Hernandez’s safety issues, legal case and now in hind sight issues related to his sexual orientation. Telling him to rent a safe house and refusing to transfer him upon his revelation of being in danger were also discussed as a deterrent to actually revealing an even deeper issue, his sexual orientation. Where was the human resources department during all of this? What types of policies are in place in the NFL, NCAA and Players Union to assist players dealing with the unique issues that are present in the league? What resources are available to coaches, spouses, partners?
The situation will only worsen as scientific developments related to CTE emerge. How will the league deal with CTE responsibly beyond a helmet policy? Race, domestic violence, sexual orientation, corporate and community citizenship along with other social responsibility issues need to be addressed. What types of policies are being developed to protect America’s past time and insure its ability to thrive? There is a material richness against the back drop of a spiritual, and intellectual poverty that is robbing the game. Aaron Hernandez is a case study in this fact. As the male dominated complex has mastered the technical aspects of the game, it is evident that in terms of operational and administrative leadership the complex can use development, change and talent management expertise. Classism, the obsession and value of material wealth should not overshadow an investment in competent consultative expertise that will assist in maintaining the heritage and traditions of the league while challenging obvious detriments to its future. The homophobia and biphobia are two issues that can be contained with diligence.
Although it is criticized for being black, (cite here) the NBA has taken major steps to deal with the issues of sexual orientation, gang affiliation and more. This has also opened its channels of change for other areas like One and Done. Since the revelation of Jason Collins sexual orientation, the league has been able to move forward. The findings of this report provide data to support an exploration of the topic of sexual orientation, perceptions of masculinity among members of the league. The public was consistent in morning the loss of all the young people lost in the Aaron Hernandez tragedy.
The results of this research produce both praise for the Gay movement in observing growth in the area of the medias sensitivity to dealing with the issue of homosexuality. Although it is not correct, Mr. Hernandez may have actually benefited from being labeled gay as opposed to bisexual in the general public. The label served as a notice to package the story in a politically correct palatable fashion. Conservative outlets and sports outlets practiced the correct labels though they provided links to the defamatory primary source. The Latino community was not represented in this search. They were present in terms of Latino reporters on main stream media teams. Their presence in the public blog community was indicative of a lack of growth in the area of dealing with both homosexuality and bisexuality. Hernandez was dealt more favorably by the African American community who stood divided by their love and respect for Hernandez as an athlete who is alleged to have murdered a black man. The revelation of his sexual orientation was an issue that added contempt and compassion a mix that would support the wise decision of prosecutors to avoid using the issue in trial as it may have resulted in a different outcome.
The general population of the country appears to be ready for an adult dialogue about the real sexual orientation of athletes inclusive of bisexuality. White conservative heterosexual men appear to have a surprising comfort with bisexuality above that of homosexuality in the area of discussing members of the NFL. There is a notion that there are many more Aaron Hernandez’s in the league and its time to face the facts.
Continued research on the matter with change management for new policies within the league. The league has done very well in dealing with CTE. Taking notes from the NBA in dealing with the issue of LGBT players is recommended. Working with highly skilled change management, and crisis management consultants to craft a legitimate policy dealing with the hostile work environment and other issues is needed immediately.
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